Tuesday, January 30, 2018

New INC Magazine Blog Post by 1871 CEO Howard Tullman

Are You Measuring What Matters?
Recent revelations about phony Twitter followers are the latest twist in an old game of audience amplification. You need to make sure that you're always locked in on the right metrics. And more importantly, that you're always acting on the information.

It's never too soon when you're starting a new business to take a break, catch your breath, look around, and make sure you're heading in the right direction, doing the right things in the right way, and chasing the right rabbit. Chasing too many rabbits at once is a formula for failure. Doing things just to keep busy (or because you can't sit still) is both debilitating and dumb. And it doesn't matter how fast you're going if you're on the wrong road. So, do yourself a favor and slow down occasionally.  This isn't anything you don't know. What matters is having the discipline to stop and take stock of where you are and to "course correct" mistakes in a timely fashion before they become unrecoverable failures. Left to themselves, problems will fester and only get worse-- they rarely go away.  Fixing things doesn't happen by itself.  I've developed a simple set of steps to guide you in the process. I call these the 5 A's:

Audit: figure out where to look for opportunities/exposures and what to look for;

Analyze: determine what's going on--right and wrong--and when changes need to be made;

Act/Adjust: bite the bullet and do what needs to be done, but don't take on too much at one time;

After Action: see what happened, good and bad, and,

Anticipate: get started on what's next.

Keep in mind that tweaks are fine-- not everything is a teardown or a complete redo. You don't test the depth of a puddle by jumping in with both feet. As we like to say, start small and scale. Importantly, don't plan on stopping, because this is an ongoing, constant, and iterative process where you get better a little bit at a time all the time. But only if you get started and keep at it. Not all the time-- not every day-- but in a regular and systemic way. Just like innovation, continuous improvement is not a department or a part time thing or a chore. Always striving to get better at what you do is part of the culture of the best businesses. 

The second and equally important part of the process is proper metrics. What gets measured in your business is what ultimately gets done because that's what you are paying attention to. Of course, watching and measuring the right things is paramount.
Metrics are all the rage today because Americans love nothing more than keeping score. All kinds of folks-- well-intentioned and also awful people--play off that desire every day. I can remember in the simpler times when we thought that clickbait headlines and listicles for losers were about as low as you could go in the corrupt competition for eyeballs. I warned then warned then that tricked traffic, vicarious visitors, and the kind of morons attracted to the latest news on Momma whoever's new diet weren't worth reaching or pitching to in any case because they weren't buying anything worth selling-- but at least we thought they were living, breathing human beings. I said:

                  "...if you're advertising on a web site, and its primary traffic drivers are hacks, tricks and clever pet pix, what are its visitors really worth? Even assuming that those visitors are people and not tracking robots?
                  I'd argue that they're not worth your time and certainly not worth your money. Instead of attracting people who might be interested in your products or services and also highly influential, you can end up spending money to attract mobs of easily-influenced people who probably couldn't explain how they got to a given website if they were asked."
How naïve I was: things can always get worse and more disgusting. Because the race to the bottom never ends, and lowlifes can be innovative, too. The latest craze of fraudulent exaggeration allows you to buy bots to tweet your site and acquire fake robotic followers to build up your alleged "audience," a service provided by shady scumbags in foreign lands. Duping people into thinking your social media voice (your megaphone) is much bigger and broader than it actually is isn't much different from the many ways that marketers seeking to monetize their media have lied about their metrics, viewership and reach since the beginning of time. But that's a swamp for another day.
For the moment, what's critical as you review your business is to be sure that you're measuring the right behaviors and results in the right way. To do this correctly, you've got to go all the way. Too often we settle for part of the story or fall for the form and forget the substance. I see this all the time in software and solution implementations. Too many IT professionals think they are keeping score, but they aren't really asking deep enough questions or looking hard enough at what's going on in order to actually know the score.
Effective software rollouts are a three-step process and every step counts. First, you have deployment -- getting the stuff on everyone's machines and devices. You can't stop there. Second, you have adoption-- are people using the new tools and solutions-- are the dogs eating the dogfood? That's a good next step, but you're not home yet. Finally: results. Is the whole big hairy deal making a real difference in your operations and your bottom line? If not, it wasn't worth the trip. This is the hardest and most uncomfortable question because no one might like the answer. The rule here is simple: if you've made a mistake, you've got to acknowledge that bad news and make the necessary changes. You should never stick to a mistake just to try to justify the time and money you spent making it.
Metrics are messy, but they're the keys to the kingdom; you've got to master the ones that matter. And they're fluid. Smart businesses are flexible enough to shift the ways they keep score (even when this may be unpopular with their customers) if the new approach makes more sense and is a better and more representative way to track the behaviors that drive the bottom line. A very relevant example is the recent shift that Starbucks made to its rewards program. Instead of simply tracking store visits, Starbucks shifted to tracking what the visitors/customers actually spent which, of course, makes so much more sense. The airlines figured this out a while ago and adjusted their frequent flyer programs to emphasize dollars spent over miles traveled or segments flown.

Part of your review process should focus on the same kinds of questions and concerns. Maybe you're measuring what's easy to measure. Maybe you're measuring things that don't matter and wasting time and money doing that. Maybe you're too focused on squeaky wheels and not on long-term loyal customers. There are a lot of ways to get this wrong and only one way to get it right. Get started.

Saturday, January 27, 2018

1871 Hosts Devon Still for Tour and Talk

Dumbstruck gets new CEO, investor

Dumbstruck gets new CEO, investor
By Larry Rulison Updated 4:14 pm, Friday, January 26, 2018

Dumstruck in Schenectady named a new CEO, Jeff Tetrault, center, who is standing with co-founders Michael Tanski, left, and Peter Allegretti, right.

Dumbstruck in Schenectady has hired a new CEO to take the facial recognition software company to the next level.

Jeff Tetrault, a digital video and advertising entrepreneur who grew up in the Capital Region and started his own digital media companies in New York City and Chicago, will work alongside Dumbstruck founders Peter Allegretti and Michael Tanski as Dumbstruck's chief executive.

Tetrault is a 1998 graduate of Watervliet High School and worked at local tech companies MapInfo and GlobalSpec before setting off on his own to work and later launch digital video startups in New York City and Chicago.

After his company Philo Media was merged with another company last year, he was asked to take a look at Dumbstruck by Andi Schneiter, the co-founder of GlobalSpec, which is now part of IEEE. Schneiter is a member of Eastern New York Angels, an investor in Dumbstruck.  Allegretti had also been working on the idea of bringing in an experienced CEO as part of the company's growth plans.

"After the first couple of calls with the founders of Dumbstruck, it was immediately apparent to me that Dumbstruck had built a technology that could truly change the face of advertising globally," Tetrault said. "And getting to know the founders and team, I couldn't imagine doing anything else."

Tetrault will commute between Schenectady, where Dumbstruck is located, and Chicago, where he lives. He spends the majority of the week here in the Capital Region. Dumbstruck is located on State Street at the New York BizLab, a startup "incubator" owned by Transfinder owner Anthony Civitella.

The company's artificial intelligence software platform can study the facial reaction people have to advertising and marketing videos, allowing ad companies to better craft advertising to their target audiences.

Tetrault has deep ties to ad agencies in New York City, Chicago and Los Angeles where Dumbstruck is planning to expand its presence. The technology hub will remain in Schenectady. The company currently has nine people working at the BizLab.

"After proving the effectiveness of our technology with a few major global advertisers, we strongly felt that we were ready to scale the business," Allegretti said. "But I knew it would be very difficult for us to scale efficiency without adding a few key pieces."

Tetrault was also able to bring on Howard Tullman as an investor in Dumbstruck through his venture capital firm G2T3V. Tullman is one of Chicago's best-known startup entrepreneurs and a well known philanthropist in the city. Tullman is the CEO of 1871, a tech incubator based at Chicago's Merchandise Mart.

"Howard has mentored countless entrepreneurs and startups that are creating new jobs and changing the face of Chicago's digital economy, and he has transformed 1871 into one of the leading technology incubators in the world," Mayor Rahm Emmanuel told the Chicago Tribune. "His imprint on a diverse new generation of leaders leaves a lasting legacy across the city."

"Emotional intelligence is quickly emerging as a powerful byproduct of AI (artificial intelligence), and Dumbstruck is right on the pulse of how businesses can leverage the technology to more effectively connect with consumers in order to better drive the bottom line," Tullman said.

Terms of the investment by G2T3V were not disclosed.

Tuesday, January 23, 2018

Snapsheet New Office Ribbon Cutting

New INC Magazine Blog Post by 1871 CEO Howard Tullman

Don't Be Frightened--or Fooled--by the A.I. Monster
A dark "secret" from my past is resurfacing in the form of businesses that are selling nonsense and calling it artificial intelligence.

 CEO, 1871@tullman

I’m embarrassed. I feel a little bit like Frankenstein’s father. The “monster” I built is somewhat more mundane than the big guy of fiction. On the other hand, my creature is real - it’s alive! - and taken on a life of its own, morphing into something that’s just as evil and mendacious. Worse yet, my creation is spawning a whole new generation of artificial intelligence impostors and other simple macros masquerading as intelligent machines.
I wrote briefly about this problem and the rampant confusion in a  recent post, but I think it needs some further explanation so we can all try to get on the same page and set some basic ground rules about this A.I. stuff.

About 40 years ago, I built a relatively simple system that I named the “consultant in a box.” The system linked specific numerical scores and behavioral rankings with phrases and texts, which were then combined by a word processor into what appeared to be evaluative paragraphs prepared by a sociologist or psychologist. We sometimes jokingly called this glorified Wang program our “shrink on a stick” because it created frighteningly convincing formulations that could fool most readers and reviewers into thinking the reports were the product of thorough research and thoughtful analysis. They were instead pro forma pap being poured out of a production line.

On its very best days, my little monster machine would put out dozens of slick little synopses that ranked and rated sales people and jobseekers. These rankings were no better than, and about halfway between, horoscopes and fortune cookies. But they were completely convincing because we had figured out how to quickly, easily and inexpensively tell a whole lot of people in a hurry just what they thought they wanted to hear.
In the years that followed, I incorporated my evaluation engine into a variety of different technical and mechanical environments. It even eventually directed the way various characters reacted and responded to choices made by each player in one of my more successful CD-ROM computer games, called “ERASER TURNABOUT” and published by Warner Bros. Interactive. The way the player initially responded to a detailed “interactive” video conversation with the psychiatrist in the game determined the ways in which the game progressed and the player’s journey as well as his or her likely success. The system essentially produced a different variation of the game every time it was played. These days-; literally decades later-; companies like Narrative Science turn baseball box scores into newspaper stories and stock stats into portfolio analyses, albeit with a touch more science and a little less schmaltz.

But my shabby past came painfully back to haunt me just recently during a board meeting, as we sat reviewing reports on prospective candidates while trying to find a great new head of sales for one of my portfolio companies. One of the participants started trying to parse and analyze a couple of the boilerplate comments buried in a bogus report that was put together by the company’s HR team. She might just as well have been reading tea leaves. Turns out the HR guys used some outside consulting/recruiting firm that was in turn using a system just like my old one to crank out this crap and try to convince some clients that what they were reading had even the slightest connection to reality.
If it hadn’t been so ludicrous (no offense to Ludacris), it would have just been pitiful to see such a waste of time and money. I wouldn’t rely on a program like this to pick a horse in the fifth race at Pimlico much less to select the person you were trying to hire to help you build your business. But there we were watching someone trying to make sense out of sentences arranged by a software program that had about as much substance as the server aligning the silverware brings to the task of setting the table. The server knows exactly where to place the spoon, but hasn’t the slightest idea of whether you’re going to use it to eat your soup or your spumoni. It’s all a matter of placement and proximity - location and language - and not about performance or personality. Just because you know where to stick a fork doesn’t mean that you understand what to do with it.
And that’s what got me thinking again about what’s so wrong about the way too many people are talking about artificial intelligence. As I’ve said before, true A.I.- when it arrives - won’t be about business process automation. This is the easy stuff that bots ought to be doing already in a bunch of big businesses. A.I. is not as simple as predetermined pattern recognition (or tagging a million pix for future matching), which is really all about accessing memory. Simply asking a machine to find and match text in a database that aligns with the content of queries initiated by a user isn’t moving the needle forward. It’s certainly not to be confused with “reading” or as exhibiting any actual intelligence. And finally, there’s nothing to get all excited about regarding accelerated data sourcing, which is nothing more than rapid recall and retrieval. So, what’s a simple test for the real A.I. of the future?
I think A.I. comes down to two simple words: Extraction and Extrapolation. A true A.I. system will perform both functions without supervision or ongoing direction. It will have procedural rules, some data management protocols, and guard rails, but no a priori restrictions or limitations.

Extraction in this context means that the system will continuously review the flow of data (which is basically unstructured) and from the data flow it will derive and identify behaviors, frequencies and trends-; not by comparing them to pre-existing models or patterns, but instead by finding new ones that were previously unknown, unbounded or otherwise unidentified. The determination of the ranges and boundaries of these new “objects” will be among the most critical chores of the new systems, which will need to ascertain the extent, perimeters and parameters of the new patterns and objects by applying new measurements of power, density and frequency to the data flows. As the power and presence of the new objects diminishes at the margins, the boundaries of the new phenomena will be ascertained and locked in.

Extrapolation in this context means that the system will have the independent capacity to capture these new patterns and objects. And beyond that, to rationally build upon them, expand them and - most particularly - generalize their patterns and behavior into other areas, both adjacent and remote. Critically, the fundamental activities will not be the incremental expansion of prior experiences and analytical results, but instead create and develop new projections and anticipatory expectations of future behaviors and activities.

The bottom line: if you already know why, it ain’t A.I.

1871 CEO Howard Tullman and Snapsheet CEO Brad Weisberg Appear on Tasty Trade

1871's Howard Tullman invites Snapsheet's CEO and Founder, Brad Weisberg, into the tastytrade studio to give us an update since his last appearance. Snapsheet is an app which uses proprietary technology to make automotive claims simpler for customers as well as insurance companies. Brad explains how his company has expanded in recent months and comments on the changes he sees in the insurance industry. Plus, Howard weighs in on his role as a board member of Snapsheet and the importance of the Board Member/CEO relationship in a business such as this! Learn More About Snapsheet: http://www.snapsheetapp.com/#about Some of the most interesting stories around are from entrepreneurs willing to take an idea and turn it into a business. From web apps to workouts to Barron's and babies, we've got it covered. You can watch a new Bootstrapping in America interview live and check out all previous episodes everyday at http://ow.ly/Ee7F0

Tuesday, January 16, 2018

New INC Magazine Blog Post by 1871 CEO Howard Tullman

What Are You Really Working For?
Don't let money get in the way of family and especially of doing something that really matters.

CEO, 1871@tullman

Now that we're past the holidays and hopefully beyond all the stress and angst of the always painful year-end compensation discussions, I wanted to bring up a far more important conversation that also arises around this time of year. It's the one we have immediately prior to solemnly making those annual "work less and spend more time with the family" resolutions, with accompanying promises and commitments to our partners and our kids.
Every entrepreneur (and everyone else building a business) knows how these things go, especially today when we're all working longer and harder, spending less time with our families and loved ones, and feeling somewhat rotten and very guilty about it. The fact that there are really good reasons for the extra time away or because the jobs we're doing are important not just to ourselves but to others as well doesn't make that discussion any easier or less emotional. As I usually say: there's always more work, but you've only got one family.
In these family meetings and other conversations, we find ourselves explaining and excusing and generally trying to justify our efforts and our absences, especially to our kids. And, unfortunately, for lack of a better or more straightforward explanation, we often seize upon a particularly unfortunate turn of a phrase and a pretty lousy excuse.  We say, in so many different ways and words, that:
            I work to make money  to buy you (fill in the blank); or

            I work to make money  to provide you with (insert here); or

            I work to make money  so we can do or go (destination please).

You get it, right? Sounds familiar? Maybe it's a spouse, but most often it's our kids. And just what are we telling them?
We're telling our kids that we work for money-- that money is what matters-- and that money is to buy things, places, people, etc.  That "getting" is really the be-all and the end-all.  And that's too bad. Because it's a lame explanation, a dishonest excuse, and an awful message--probably the worst message possible. This explanation is quick and easy and we all fall into this trap from time to time. But we can do better and, frankly, we better do better because our kids are already drowning in media messages that say -- a million times a day-- that life is all about the bucks.
So, I have a modest suggestion for the next time you find yourself in this particular fix.  Let's try to change the context --change the conversation--and tell our loved ones the truth (or maybe what we hope the truth should be) whenever we're asked about why we work.  You might want to spend a little time thinking about a better answer before the fat's in the fire.
What is the truth?  What's the honest answer? Start by being honest with yourself. When you're dragging, feeling a little sorry for yourself, can't take another day of work (and it's only Wednesday), and you find yourself mumbling and grumbling to yourself that "we need the money" or "I have no choice" or "I've got bills to pay", you're just kidding yourself just like we've all been kidding our kids for years.
If you don't know why you're working and what you're working for, or you can't think of a good reason to come to work, then do yourself and everyone else a favor and find something else to do. I tell all our 1871 companies the same thing: "we act as though comfort and luxury were the chief requirements of life when all we need to make us really happy is something to be enthusiastic about." If you don't love it--most of the time-- leave it.
O.K. you say, but what is the right answer when the kids ask, as you're sneaking out the door on Saturday morning to spend the day at the office: "Hey Dad, how come you never come home?"  Or maybe: "Why is work so important all the time, don't we come first?"
The truth and the best answer is that we work for two basic reasons: (A) to make ourselves proud and (B) to help other people. We don't really work for money. We work to be productive and creative. We work to make a difference in our lives and the lives of others. We work because we secure real satisfaction from what we achieve with our hands, our hearts and our minds.
There's no price tag on the stuff. Money isn't even a good way to keep score. Does anyone really think that a rock star's contribution is millions of times more valuable than a teacher's?  That's just more media bullshit. We work to accomplish things that move our lives forward, that matter in meaningful ways, and that we can feel honestly and sincerely good about it.  There's no shame or false pride in that. There's nothing to be embarrassed to tell your kids about. If you love what you do, let them know and pray that someday they'll have a similar experience and privilege.
Is it foolish, or do we sound selfish, if we admit that we work because it makes us feel good and fulfilled?  I don't think so and I think it's a much more constructive, effective, and appropriate answer for everyone-- kids and grownups too. Don't tell your kids you work because you have to, or worse, that you work to buy them Christmas toys or other goodies. We work because work is important and that's what grown-ups do. Your career is something to be unashamedly proud of and to share with  kids and others. We're building things to make the world a better place.
And that's where Part B comes in.  We're not isolated islands and in this thing all by ourselves.  Everything we do or don't do impacts many others-- especially those of us who teach. So, it's just as important to understand, acknowledge and have our kids appreciate that, apart from the selfish motivation of making us feel good,  we all work as well for a greater good and to help others by making their lives better and fuller as well as our own. Hard work and commitment is how life moves forward and how the world gets better. A lot of tiny steps by millions of people, a little bit at a time, and mountains move.
And that just leaves the matter of money. What should we say about money? I hope that the message I've shared with my kids is pretty simple. Money, beyond life's necessities, is for charity and for giving back. Money is not an end in itself or a game of running up the score. Money is not a worthwhile goal because there's no finish line and there's always someone with more. At best, it's an enabling and an ennobling tool to make valuable, important, and charitable things happen.
The bottom line: work hard and be proud of the work you do; love what you do or do something else; try to make a difference in this world every day in large and small ways; and use all of your talents, energy and resources to help others to better their lives. And lastly, hug your kids much too much, far too often, and until they squeal.
The opinions expressed here by Inc.com columnists are their own, not those of Inc.com.


Tuesday, January 09, 2018

New INC Magazine Blog Post by 1871 CEO Howard Tullman

New Year, Same Advice: Six Basic Things You Need to Do
Yes, it's a time that we're future-focused and optimistic. But don't lose sight of the less dreamy details.

CEO, 1871@tullman

Every January, I try to remind my team about a few basics-- half a dozen simple rules of the road that have served me well over the last 50 years. I do this not so much because they need instruction--we all definitely "know" what we're supposed to be doing. I do it because each and every one of us needs regular reminders since it's just too easy in the heat of battle and the stress of the day-to-day to forget, skip over, or just plain ignore some of the business fundamentals that will ultimately separate the winners from the also-rans. So, here's my short list.
1.         Pay Attention and Write It Down

Focused attention facilitates learning and retention. Take good, detailed notes in every meeting. The dullest pencil beats the sharpest memory. Don't sit there pretending that you can simply take it all in. You can't. There's absolutely no substitute in life for paying attention and making it a habit to capture the essential information during each meeting is the best way to keep your head in the game and your eye on the ball. If you're gonna be present, make sure that you're all there

And, as an aside, lawyers who advise you to keep only brief minutes of critical meetings are morons who are just trying to make their jobs or lives easier. The goal is always the same: try to be at least a little smarter by the end of the meeting. If you can't honestly convince yourself of that, then maybe going to the meeting was a waste of time. 

2.         Use A Calendar and Start Your Planning Yesterday

Start right now and scope out the whole year to the extent that you can and keep doing this all year long, at least monthly. There's a lot going on all the time and it's hard to keep up. If you do this right, it's a lot like having your own crystal ball. There's no magic and there's no mystery-- this is all about good preparation and research. In fact, it's like owning a slo-mo machine in our sped-up world. You get an edge on the competition because you've already been there.

This simple process enables far better planning and preparation; avoids embarrassing conflicts that might bury you; assures fewer surprises and last-minute emergencies; and makes for many less missed opportunities. Doing your homework ahead of time avoids headaches and heartaches all year long. 

And, especially for a startup, it's a great way to save time and marketing dollars. Parades are very expensive-- go find an event or someone else's parade (who's headed in the right direction for your purposes) and run right alongside of them or even race to the head of their conga line. A lot of the big guys have plenty of money to stage great parties, but they're slow as molasses. Trying to lay your own track or even trying to bust through the noise and clutter that's out there is crazy when you can just hitch a ride on someone's else railroad and ride for free on their dime. Hop on board before the other guys even know what's happening. But understand that you can't do it if you don't make it your business to know what's going on and what the world around you is doing.
3.         Do More Reading and Less Tweeting

Let your fingers do the walking, but not the talking. Give your phone and your peeps a break and shut up for a while on social. The smartest people I know read something relevant to their business every day-- as often as not (even these days) it's in print. I'm not talking about the shit on social, but real substantive material. Some of it may be internal business reporting; some of it may be competitive intelligence; some may be customer inquiries and feedback, and some may be blue-sky, but it all adds value and improves outcomes when coupled with intelligent action. You can't win a race with your mouth or your social media meanderings. 

And keep in mind that you're not being paid to waste your time and your company's money churning for hours though irrelevant newsfeeds and random tweets. Here's a flash: if you aren't being paid to post, you're not the producer or the driver of the engagement or even in control of the show; you're the product whose eyeballs and alleged mindshare are being sold to the highest bidder-- just like the patsy in the poker game.  If you don't know who the sucker is, you're the sucker.
4.      Ask Questions Until You Understand the Answers

Someone once said: "better to remain quiet and be thought a fool than to speak up and remove all doubt." They were dead wrong. Virtually all innovation these days comes from asking the right questions and that's absolutely an iterative process. If you're afraid to be embarrassed or to admit that you don't know it all, join the club and then get over yourself. We're all just bumbling through this stuff and no one has the secret formula or has figured everything out. As long as you've done your homework, there really aren't any dumb questions and anyone who's ever run a tech startup will tell you that: (a) the most important thing is to know all the questions rather than to have all the answers because (b) no one ever knows either all the questions or all the answers, but that shouldn't stop us from asking. And the most critical question to ask is the one that you need to ask yourself every day: How badly do I want it?

5.      Remember to Regularly Review Your Reverse Roadmap

I'm frankly depressed to see how many young entrepreneurs are basically working for next to nothing and just don't know it yet. Of course, if you don't care where you end up, then any road will take you there. But if you do, and especially if you're also looking out for the members of your team who are also working their butts off, then it makes sense to take the time to figure out where you actually stand and where you're likely to end up in terms of  dollars and cents.

I realize that it's supposed to be all about the journey and the joy of building something, but that doesn't mean you can't be a little mindful of the math that ultimately matters. This stuff isn't easy, but understanding it is essential. Take the time to get smart about it or be smart enough to ask someone who knows to give you a helping hand.
6.      Raises Aren't Revenues

Too many folks are focused today on the fundraising process rather than on building sustainable businesses. The media celebrates every new round because keeping score is easier than digging into the merits and the mechanics of the actual businesses. But, all the cash any business raises don't mean squat without satisfied customers and serious sales. Paid invoices are a much more reliable indicator of whether your business is going to work than additional investments. 

And then there's that little thing called profits, which turns out to be the most important thing of all. Spending money is easy; making money is hard. Just because you killed a cow doesn't mean you're gonna eat steak for dinner. 

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